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When thrilling nerves demand what good is wrought. Where torture clogs the very soul of thought." A comprehensive idea of pain must be sought from a study of those organisms in which sensation merges from the simple state in which all stimuli have their corresponding movements, of which it is impossible for the organisms to have any concep- tion. In these studies of the simpler forms of ani- mal life no one is more deserving of an audience homeopathic viagra than Loeb. In the lowest forms of life, the nervous system is not a necessity but only an auxiliary in the life economy of the animal. In the earthworm each segment has its own special nerve supply. W. W. Norman has experimented with the simple earthworm and with vertebrates as highly organized as the fish, cutting off segments and mutilating the body without producing any movements. The re- actions to injurious stimulation on the part of the lower vertebrates have led some to conclude viagra billig kaufen that these forms of animal life have the same pain sensa- tion as man. It has been found, however, that sharks may be operated upon without the slightest movement on their part. Norman's experiments go to prove that true pain phenomena do not make their appearance until we ascend rather high in the scale of vertebrates. Motor response to an irritant is homeopathic viagra not always an indication of pain; it may be nothing more than simple reaction to stimuli. Loeb states that in his experiments on the trop- isms of animals, it became clear to him how easy it was for an observer viagra billig kaufen to regard machine-like effects of external stimuli on lower animals as the ex- pression homeopathic viagra of intelligence. In regard to pain sensa- tions of animals, Loeb believes that animals homeopathic viagra devoid of associative memory are also deficient in homeopathic viagra pain sense. Associative memory he defines as peculiar qualities of the central nervous homeopathic viagra system, whereby processes that viagra billig kaufen occur there leave an impression homeopathic viagra or trace whereby they may be produced even under different circumstances than those under which they had originated. According to Loeb : "Associative memory proba- bly exists in most mammals. The dog which comes when its name is called, which runs away from the whip, which welcomes its master joyfully, has asso- ciative memory. In birds it is likewise present. The parrot viagra billig kaufen learns to talk; the dove finds its way home. Ill lower vertebrates, memory is also occa- sionally found. Tree frogs, for example, can be trained, upon hearing a sound, to go to a certain place for food. In other frogs, Rana esculenta, for instance, no homeopathic viagra reaction is as yet known which proves the existence of associative memory. Some fishes evidently possess memory; in sharks, however, its existence is doubtful. With regard to the inverte- brates, the question is difficult to determine. The statements of enthusiasts who discover conscious- ness and resemblance to man on every side should not be too readily accepted." The same investigator expresses his conviction as to the ease with which an observer, inclined to look at things from the human viewpoint, regards the machine-like effects of external stimuli on lower animals as the expression of intelligence. Bethe also regards associative memory as a criterion for the existence of consciousness. The reaction of an injured earthworm homeopathic viagra when it writhes and wriggles is naturally regarded as the expression of pain sensation, and some go so far homeopathic viagra as to regard these contortions as the expression of severe pain. This conclusion is not justified by the experiments of Norman, who found that if an earthworm be divided transversely, only the pos- terior piece homeopathic viagra makes the writhing motions, while the anterior portion crawls off, apparently unaffected. The anterior portion, which contains the brain, evidently experiences no pain sensations.' homeopathic viagra There is a tendency, almost universal, for man to interpret pain in the lower animals, and even in the lowest animals, in viagra billig kaufen terms of his own sensation. It is a physiological fact that the superficial parts of the body are well supplied with sensory homeopathic viagra nerves, while the deeper, internal portions are less richly provided. The brain, the center of the nen'ous system, is itself homeopathic viagra without sensation. Gushing was the first to demonstrate that the dura mater is insensitive to ordinary pain stimuli. The reason for these physiological phenomena is apparent when we consider that the brain and dura are well pro- tected by the skull, and that the viscera are pro- tected by the viagra billig kaufen e.xternal portions of the viagra billig kaufen body : that the skin, the "flesh garment" of the body is mo.¬ęt richly provided of all with nerves of sensation. The pain-sense, like the special senses, is largely a matter of mental and racial development. The self-mutilations of primitive peoples are not so much a matter of bravery as of the presence of a rudimentary pain sense. The horse with a homeopathic viagra broken leg will proceed to graze in the pasture with little apparent discomfort. Veterinary surgeons perform operations upon animals with little thought of ad- ministering anesthetics. Even in civilized man the pain sense requires to be developed; it is not bom with him. The operation of circumcision is fre- quently done on newly-born male infants, who ex- hibit little evidence of pain. The "facies pathetica" September 4, 1915] MEDICAL RECORD. 401