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Dr. Taylor's statement had represented the consensus of intelligent medical opinion on the subject. Serum Studied in Pregnancy. — Drs. John A. Kolmer and Philip F. Williams presented this communication, which was viagra in las vegas a study of the specificity of ferments in preg- nancy and the mechanism of the Abderhalden reaction (1) by means of local .skin reactions; (2) by proteo- toxin production in vitro. The authors said that aside from the probable clinical value of the methods devised by Abderhalden in the serum diagnosis of pregnancy and various pathological conditions, such as malignancy, tuberculosis, lesions of the nervous system and duct- less glands, most interest concerned the question of the specificity of the ferments or antibodies involved and the mechanism of their action. While .Abderhalden and many of his pupils had claimed a high degree of specificity for the "protective ferments" and his pregnancy reaction, claiming from the beginning that errors of technique were largely responsible for the failure of others to obtain satisfactory results, the authors said that the dialysis test as now conducted was not especially diffi- cult and that sufficient work had not been done by other investigators who had carefully followed Abderhalden's technique to warrant the claim that other factors than those purely technical might be responsible for the divergent and non-specific results obtained. In viagra in las vegas giving a summary of Part I, it was stated that a placentin, No. 1, prepared by concentration of expressed placental juice viagra in las vegas preserved with 1 per cent, glycerin and 0.5 per cent, tricresol and injected intracutaneously yielded skin reactions characterized by erj'thema, infiltration, and pain in 87 per cent, of pregnant or recently delivered women, and in 66 per cent, of women who had borne children, but who were not pregnant at the time these tests were made. This extract also caused 20 per cent, of the men tested to react slightly. When diluted 1 to 10 with physiological salt solution this extract yielded 80 per cent, positive reactions among pregnant or recently delivered women, and .50 per cent, positive among women who had borne children. A placentin, No. 4, prepared in the same manner as the first extract, except that glycerin was genuine viagra canada not used in its preparation or preserva- tion, yielded 40 per cent, positive reactions among preg- nant or recently delivered women, and 14 per cent, posi- tive reactions among women who had borne children. It is probable that glycerin itself acts as an irritant, especially in the hypersensitive skin of pregnant women. A placentin, No. 2, prepared from the residue resulting from the concentration of expressed placental juice yielded 55 per cent, positive reactions among women who were pregnant or recently delivered. This placentin produced slightly positive results in 20 per cent, of the men tested. A glycerin extract, placentin No. 5, upon cutaneous inocluation yielded 50 per cent, positive reactions among pregnant and recently deliv- ered women. Of several multiparous and nulliparous women tested, all reacted negatively. Extracts of human male and female kidney (nephrins) prepared in the same manner as the placentins produced a num- ber of positive reactions among pregnant, puerperal, multiparous and nulliparous women. The most marked reactions were observed with the extract of human female kidney. A summary of Part II showed that proteotoxins were produced during the Abderhalden September 25, 1915J MEDICAL RECORD. 545 pregnancy reaction, which when injected genuine viagra canada intracutane- ously and intravenously into normal animals produced local and general changes analogous to anaphylactic reactions. Proteotoxins produced in a mixture of human pregnancy serum and human placenta were toxic for normal guinea-pigs. The ninhydrin test with dialysates and intracutaneous and intravenous injec- tions of the sera in the Abderhalden reactions yielded fairly parallel indices of the degree of protein digestion and proteotoxin production. The addition of various tissue substrates other than placenta to human preg- nancy serum was followed occassionally by proteotoxin production as shown by intracutaneous genuine viagra canada and intravenous tests with the serum, but except when a substrate of human kidney was used, the amount of proteotoxin produced was usually much less than that produced in mixtures of pregnancy serum and human placenta. Similar results were observed with inorganic absorbents as kaolin, starch, quartz, etc. It was found that the prote- olytic ferments in healthy normal serum might produce small amounts of proteotoxins when tissue substrates were added, and occasionally, and viagra in las vegas to less degi-ee, with inorganic genuine viagra canada absorbents as kaolin and starch. Comple- ment in itself, it was found, had no direct relation to the ferments in pregnancy serum. Inactivation of serum probably viagra in las vegas reduced its digestive power through destruction of viagra in las vegas normal proteolytic ferment and reactiva- tion of a genuine viagra canada serum by means of the addition of serum com- plement increased its digestive power to a slight de- gree probably by reason of the addition of these normal ferments. In pregnancy serum there were two sets of proteolji:ic ferments, normal and non-specific, and specific ferments. The former might be released through absorption of the antiferment by means of various non-specific organic and inorganic genuine viagra canada substances, whereas the genuine viagra canada latter were released through the absorp- tion of the antiferments by means of the specific protein antigen alone. The authors' experiments suggested also that the protein matrix in the Abderhalden reac- tion was not only the protein of the serum, but also to some extent that of the tissue substratum itself. While hesitating to report upon the local skin reactions in pregnant and puerperal women until a relatively large number were viagra in las vegas studied, in view of the contradictory re- sults viagra in las vegas obtained by others, the authors felt ju.stified in concluding that the reactions were anaphylactic in na- ture and due to an anaphylatoxin produced by the ac- tion of general ferments upon a protein genuine viagra canada substrate. They did not believe at present that the reaction in the skin test for pregnancy possessed a practical value in diagnosis, certainly not among women who had borne children. According to experiments described in Part II, pregnancy serum contained proteolytic ferments