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ture of the epileptic character is a periodic fluctu- ation of the affective tone." The most prominent abiding features of the epileptic personality are exaggerations and discrepancies in his emotional domain. His manifestations probably result from an imperfectly developed buy individual viagra pills instinct. 656 MEDICAL RECORD. [Oct. 16, 1915 The essential motive in all genuine epileptic fits is believed by Clark' to be an unconscious striving on the part of the epileptic to return to intrauterine life. Hoch and others say that this motive has to be accepted. My study urged consideration of this view. The epileptic feels better after a fit. Peace is restored to a restless subconscious or, as Stoddard says, the fit seems to "clear the air." To the sub- conscious motive or desire of the epileptic the fit serves a purpose and has a significance. Such a subconscious desire in the epileptic appears to be instinctive. The instinct is a perverted one for it directs a best price on viagra from canada return to intrauterine life, which may be interpreted as a desire of best price on viagra from canada the epileptic not to be in or of the world. His return is represented periodi- cally by the epileptic manifestations and therefore is gratifying to his unconscious desire. As this desire never could have been in the consciousness of the epileptic it was regarded as one not essen- tially of his own making, and my investigation as to its cause was therefore directed to the parents of epileptic children. The nervous state of a pregnant woman is a matter of material significance to the makeup of her child's nervous constitution. Dana,' in speaking of the etiology of epilepsy, says that "Powerful emo- tions during pregnancy have some influence." It seemed worth while, therefore, to determine whether or not some particular emotional factor or imper- fect instinct could be buy individual viagra pills uncovered that acting during pregnancy influences the nervous anlage of the developing child and is responsible for the deformed or dwarfed emotional and instinct equipment that prompts the strange e.xpressions of the epileptic constitution. A case of pure psychogenic convulsions studied with Dr. Ames and reported at the Neurological Section of the Academy of Medicine in December, 1914, taught several lessons confirmatory of Clark's hypothesis and instructive to further advance. The patient was a girl 18 best price on viagra from canada years of age who entered the Neurological Institute November, 1914. She had been subjected for four years to violent one- sided convulsive seizures occurring periodically like those of the epileptic and continuing till complete exhaustion set in. There was absence of hysterical stigmata but the condition responded to psycho- analysis. For details the reader is referred to the publication of this case in the Medical Record', but instructive points were brought out by the psychoanalysis of this convulsion which can be enumerated as follows: (1) The convulsion was identified as a reestablished behavior phenomenon. (2) The reestablisment of this behavior was uncon- sciously desired for it served a perverted instinct. (3) The behavior represented that of a time only best price on viagra from canada a few years earlier in the patient's life. (4) A revelation of the desire was appreciated by the patient. (5) When the desire was recognized and relinquished, its fulfillment, the convulsive attacks did not reappear. A psychogenic origin of the epileptic should, apart from the first point agreeing with Clark's hypothesis, agree in a measure by its other points with those of this psychogenic convulsion. It is Clark's idea that the epileptic fit is the reestablish- ment in a violent best price on viagra from canada form of the movements of a child in utero and has the accompanying unconscious state of that time. The simple loss of consciousness of a petit mal attack is a less energetic attempt at th? same performance. To me it seems positive that something must happen during the unconscious spell that is gratifying to the unconscious motive but which the conscious mind would not approve or tolerate. Unconsciousness and amnesia allow this performance to continue unchecked. The epileptic type of nervous constitution would seem then one possessed of a perverted instinct that desires the fit, thereby agreeing with the second point. The third point also would be fulfilled if we wish to regard the intrauterine life as the time of the epileptic's life represented by his fit. The last two points indicate that if the nature of this instinct could be revealed to the epileptic and he could perceive it with his conscious reasoning facul- ties as a subconscious desire for his convulsions this desire could be relinquished and its conse- quences would cease. Among my patients during the past few months at the Neurological Institute an interesting fact was revealed. The epileptic was repeatedly found to be the child that before birth was most fervently unwelcome. He was the child that during this early developmental period was deprived of a proper emo- tional and instinct endowment. In some instances the attitude of the mother is not merely a lack of welcome but a mental rebellion and a hate for her unborn offspring. The measure in which this factor is present during pregnancy and the asso-